376 The Iberian Pacific

Malaku Islands

HISTORY 376/ What is this course about?
History 376, the Iberian Pacific, is a 4 credit history course which considers the history of Southeast Asia before and after the arrival of the Portuguese, Spanish, and later, the Dutch.

For History majors, this course fulfills the requirements for world history or regional history.

Those of you who are also registered for History 339, Ancient and Colonial Latin America, will find that these courses complement one another, and allow you to look at Iberian expansion into two different areas of the world in the same time frame, and at the interactions between these two areas facilitated by the Manila Galleon.

INSTRUCTOR/ Who is teaching this course?
Prof Mary Halavais: halavais@sonoma.edu I’m a professor in the History Department. My research involves Early Modern Spain and all that it touches on. This is my 22nd year teaching at Sonoma State.

Office Zoom: Monday 7pm, Tuesday, 1 pm, Wednesday 10 am.
Email me if you have a question, or if I can help you with the course material in any way. I will respond quickly!

PROCEDURES/What should I do for this class?
This video explains how to manage the online course.
History 376 is an online, asynchronous course. Students will not attend classes; instead, class material and assignments will be available online each week in the syllabus, at mary.halavais.net.

NOTE that this course does not use Canvas.

You may access the material and complete assignments at any time within the week. The only fixed meeting times are office hours, via ZOOM, Monday at 7 pm, Tuesday at 1 pm, and Wednesday at 10 am.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES/What will I learn in History 376 this semester?
History 376 is designed to provide you with both content knowledge and specific academic skills.
In terms of content you will acquire
1.familiarity with key ideas and important events
in the early modern Pacific and in its interactions with Europe and the New World.. You will also gain an
2.appreciation for the different kinds of sources and varied methods used to study the these areas..
In terms of academic skills History 339 will develop your
1.critical reading ability,
since you will be answering questions about assigned reading each week. Your
2.writing and analytic skills
will improve as you work on posts and responses, and you will also begin to appreciate the importance of
3.collaboration
in academic work.

BASIS FOR GRADE/ How will I be evaluated or graded in History 376?
Your grade in the course will be based upon the following work:
15% Weekly reading questions, based on the readings, are listed in the syllabus. They are due by 11:59 PM each Sunday evening. You may submit work after this date, but you will not receive full credit. For each day an assignment is late, 15% will be deducted from your grade. Thus, to receive any credit at all, you must submit late work within one week of the due date.
15% A one-paragraph reaction to the weekly problem, posted by 11:59 PM each Sunday evening.
15% Two responses to two different reactions, posted by the following Tuesday at 1:59 PM. Your responses should offer additional examples in support of the reaction, or challenge the reaction in some way. “Good work” or “Great idea” are not responses!
25% Midterm essay exam and
30% Final essay exam Exams are essay format, and require you to cite liberally from the material you have been reading and viewing.
Cite your sources; give credit to others for their ideas.
Plagiarism in this course will result in your failing the course as a whole, in addition to whatever penalties the University imposes. Please see the University catalog.

Students with Special Needs
If you are a student with special learning needs, and you think you may require accommodations, your first step is to register with the campus office of Disability Services for Students,  707-664-2677. DSS will provide you with written confirmation of your verified disability, and authorize recommended accommodations. You then present this recommendation to the instructor,  who will discuss the accommodations with you.

Unforeseen circumstances
While this course does not require you to attend class, it does require an internet connection. With PG&E outages or other unforeseen events it is possible that you may lose your internet connection. We can adapt the course to these, or other, changing conditions.

The Syllabus
History 376 should be a collaboration; students, as well as the instructor, can be involved in deciding what is important to study.  This syllabus is not set in stone! If you are interested in a particular topic and would like to learn more about it, please let me know. 

Schedule Week by Week

January 24 – Pacific worlds
VIEW: Video Lecture

A. REQUIRED READING AND VIEWING
Matsuda, Matt, Pacific Worlds: A History of Seas, People and Cultures (Cambridge U., 2012) pages 9-48.

B.RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading, due Jan 31, by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais @sonoma.edu. (Questions will be emailed to your sonoma.edu address.)

QUESTION: Why do you suppose we are taught so little about the Pacific world in schools in the US and in Europe?

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Post your response by Jan 31at 11:59 p.m. Sign your response with your first and last initial.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please.

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on. Sign each of your comments with first and last initial.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please.

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Feb 1 – Portugal
VIEW: Video lecture

CLICK ON THE VIDEO LECTURE TO GET TO THE POSTING SECTION!

Gujarati farmers from the Portuguese Codice Casanatense, 16th C

A. REQUIRED READING AND VIEWING
Diffe and Winius, Foundations of the Portuguese Empire (U Minnesota, 1977) 166-186, and Maps and charts beginning at 192a.

Video: The Spice Route 1 hr 40 min

B.RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading, due NOTE CHANGE: TUESDAY FEB 9, by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais @sonoma.edu. (Questions will be emailed to your sonoma.edu address.)

QUESTION: The text you read this week, from 1977, mentions Portuguese “exchanging” prisoners for natives, and then returning those natives to their homes. The film, from 1999, made by a German director, does mention the Portuguese role in the slave trade. How important is it to mention this activity of the Portuguese, in terms of their history of exploration and trade? Please provide reasons for your response.

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Post your response by NOTE CHANGE FEB 9 at 11:59 p.m. No need to sign – you name appears with your posting
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please.

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on. No need to sign!
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please.

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PLEASE EXPECT TO SEE THE THINKING QUESTION AND THE VIDEO LECTURE, AND TO RECEIVE THE READING QUESTIONS, ON MONDAY MORNINGS FOR THE REST OF THE SEMESTER!

Feb 8 – Vasco da Gama
VIEW: Video lecture

A. REQUIRED READING AND VIEWING
En Nom de Deus: The Journal of the first voyage of Vasco da Gama to India (Brill, 2009) pages 1-69.

Barbosa, Duarte. A description of the coasts of East Africa and Malabar. (Hakluyt Society) pages 29 and 34-65, google numbering.
Take a look at pages 25 and 27 (copies of original)

RECOMMENDED READING
de Camoes, Luis, The Lusiad.
You many find the many introductions interesting as well.

B.RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading, due Sunday Feb 14, by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais @sonoma.edu. (Questions will be emailed to your sonoma.edu address.)

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. HERE IS THE QUESTION: Both of your readings are primary sources. As you know, historians “privilege” primary sources, but we often work with secondary sources – monographs, articles and the like, written by people who weren’t there. How are secondary sources useful to you as a young historian? How might you engage with secondary sources, like your readings from the first two weeks, differently than you would with a primary source? (I will talk a bit about this in this week’s lecture.)Post your response by Feb 14 at 11:59 p.m.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please.

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Feb 15 – Strait of Malacca
VIEW: Video lecture

A. REQUIRED READING AND VIEWING
Matsuda, Matt, Pacific Worlds: A History of Seas, People and Cultures (Cambridge U., 2012) pages 49-74.

Evers and Hornidge, “Knowledge Hubs along the Straits of Malacca

B.RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading, due Sunday Feb 21, by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais @sonoma.edu. (Questions will be emailed to your sonoma.edu address.)

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question.HERE IS THE QUESTION: The Portuguese used force to establish themselves in the Indian Ocean, but – given the established system, and the difference in culture between the Portuguese and others – would any other method have worked? Please think about citing from the readings in your response, and post your response by Feb 21 at 11:59 p.m.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please.

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Feb 22- Spain and Circumnavigation
VIEW: Video lecture

Victoria, of Magellan’s ships, the one that returned to Spain (from map by Ortelius)

A. REQUIRED READING AND VIEWING
Kelsey, Harry, The First Circumnavigators (Yale, 2016) Chapters 1 and 2.

lecture: Ignacio Gallop-Diaz, “Great Voyages: Ferdinand Magellan, ‘Our One True Guide'”

B.RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading, due Sunday Feb 28, by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais@sonoma.edu. (Questions will be emailed to your sonoma.edu address.)

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question.Here is the question: why do you suppose that there were so many attempts at mutiny on these voyages – or do you think that that was simply the way life on board a ship usually played out? Post your response by Feb 28 at 11:59 p.m. Citing from the week’s material is always good!
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please.

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Mar 1: To the Philippines
VIEW: Video Lecture

A.REQUIRED READING AND VIEWING
Kelsey, Harry, The First Circumnavigators(Yale, 2016) 60-128.

Giraldez, Arturo, The Age of Trade (Rowman and Littlefield, 2015) 1-60.

B.RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading, due Sunday Mar 7, by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais @sonoma.edu. (Questions will be emailed to your sonoma.edu address.)

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Here is the question: China, as you know, was always willing to buy or exchange for silver. Please show me how China’s demand for silver could drive world trade in the 1600s and 1700s, using information from Giraldez. Post your response by Mar 7 at 11:59 p.m.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please.

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March 8- Spain in the Pacific: Maps and Stories
VIEW: Video lecture

Ortelius: Obis Terrarum

A. REQUIRED READING AND VIEWING
Maroto Camino, Mercedes, Producing the Pacific: Maps and Narratives of Spanish Exploration (Brill, 2005) 15-126.

B.RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading, due Sunday Mar 14, by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais@sonoma.edu. (Questions will be emailed to your sonoma.edu address.)

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Here is your question: Should we consider the early voyages from the New World to the South Pacific failures? If so, why, and if not, why not?Post your response by Mar 14 at 11:59 p.m.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please.

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Mar 15 MIDTERM EXAM WEEK
Your midterm exam is an essay of 2100 words (6 pages). You will have at least two topics, emailed on Sunday March 14, to choose from. Your essay must use Chicago (Turabian) citation format, and you should include sources from the required and recommended reading. The essay is due to halavais@sonoma.edu by 11:59 pm, Friday, March 19.

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Mar 22 SPRING BREAK
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Mar 29 – WEEK 10
VIEW: Video lecture

From The Boxer Codex. The Manila Galleon in the Ladrones.

A. REQUIRED READING:
Manila Galleon, Part I (63-192)

B. RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading, due Sunday April 4, by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais@sonoma.edu. (Questions will be emailed to your sonoma.edu address.)

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Here is your question: ?Post your response by April 4 at 11:59 p.m.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please.

Apr 5 – WEEK 11
VIEW: Video lecture

A Chinese vendor prepares food for a Philippine family

A. REQUIRED READING
The Age of Trade, Chapters 3 and 4 (61-119)
Manila Galleon, Part II (193-286)

B. RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading, due Sunday April 11, by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais@sonoma.edu. (Questions will be emailed to your sonoma.edu address.)

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Here is your question: Why do you suppose this region of the world is drawing the interest of historians recently? Post your response by April 11 at 11:59 p.m.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please.

Apr 12 – WEEK 12
VIEW: Video lecture

MANILA GALLEON ROUTE TO THE EAST
SOURCE: U.S. ARMY

A, REQUIRED READING
The Age of Trade, Chapters 5, 6, and 7 (119-191)
“The Manila Galleon Trade,” Metropolitan Museum of Art
Manila Galleon Voyages, NOAA

B. RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading, due Sunday April 18, by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais@sonoma.edu. (Questions will be emailed to your sonoma.edu address.)

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Here is your question: Why was the Spanish Crown in Madrid unable to control Manila Galleon trade in the New World effectively? How might they havre done so? Post your response by April 18 at 11:59 p.m.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please.

Apr 19 – WEEK 13
VIEW: Video lecture

ACAPULCO IN 1628

A. REQUIRED READING
Manila Galleon, Part III (287-361)
Read online (PDF format)

RECOMMENDED READING
Eye-witness Account of Image-breaking at Antwerp


B. RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading, due Sunday April 25, by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais@sonoma.edu. (Questions will be emailed to your sonoma.edu address.)

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Here is your question: If you could only ask one question about Spain and her colonies in the period 1500-1700, what would that question be, and why would that particular question be important? Post your response by April 25 at 11:59 p.m.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please.

Apr 26 – WEEK 14
VIEW: Video lecture

Taiwan in the 17th Century

A.REQUIRED READING
Manila Galleon, Part IV (361-408)
Read online (PDF format)

The Spanish Experience in Taiwan (1-53)

B. RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading, due Sunday May 2, by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais@sonoma.edu. (Questions will be emailed to your sonoma.edu address.)

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Here is your question: why did the Dutch wait until the 1600s to try for a position in the South Pacific? Post your response by May 2 at 11:59 p.m.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please.

May 3 – WEEK 15
VIEW: Weekly Question Responses

Spanish galleon fires at the Dutch. Cornelis Verbeeck; National Gallery of Art.

A. REQUIRED READING
The Spanish Experience in Taiwan (53-135)
Andrade, T, How Taiwan Became Chinese Chapters 4 and 5.

B. NO READING QUESTIONS THIS WEEK.

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Here is your question: Spanish officials in the Pacific region were of two minds as far as the importance of holding the Spanish base on Taiwan. What were the arguments for and against? how did the king in Madrid feel about all of this? Post your response by May 9 at 11:59 p.m.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please.

May 10 – WEEK 16

16th Century Ocean Routes. Spain in White; Portugal in Blue.

The Spanish Experience in Taiwan (135-206) recommended reading.

As you can see from the map above, the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries had vibrant world trade – and the map only shows Iberian routes, not those of the English or Dutch,

This week is your opportunity to think about the significance of Iberian expansion into the Pacific. Final exam questions and directions will be emailed to you on Sunday evening.

May 17 FINAL EXAM WEEK
Your final exam is due on Wednesday, May 19th, by 11:69 p.m., to halavais@sonoma.edu.