339 Ancient & Colonial Latin America

“Presencia de America Latina,” Casa del Arte, Universidad de Concepcion, Chile

HISTORY 339/ What is this course about?
History 339 is a 4 credit history course which looks at the history of ancient and colonial Latin America.

For History majors, this course fulfills the requirements of the world history concentration or the regional history concentration.

This semester, we focus on some of the early civilizations and empires like Olmecs, Zapotecs, Maya, Inca and Aztec or Mexica. Then we look at the Spanish and Portuguese invasion, occupation and development of colonies in these same areas.

INSTRUCTOR/ Who is teaching this course?
Prof Mary Halavais: halavais@sonoma.edu. I’m a professor in the History Department. My research involves Early Modern Spain and all that it touches on. This is my 22nd year teaching at Sonoma State.

Office Zoom: Monday 7pm, Tuesday, 1 pm, Wednesday 10 am.
Email me if you have a question, or if I can help you with the course material in any way. I will respond quickly!

PROCEDURES/What should I do for this class?
This video explains how to manage the online course.
History 339 is an online, asynchronous course. Students will not attend classes; instead, class material and assignments will be available online each week in the syllabus, at mary.halavais.net.

NOTE that this course does not use Canvas.

You may access the material and complete assignments at any time within the week. The only fixed meeting times are office hours, via ZOOM, Monday at 7 pm, Tuesday at 1 pm, and Wednesday at 10 am.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES/What will I learn in History 339 this semester?
History 339 is designed to provide you with both content knowledge and specific academic skills.
In terms of content you will acquire
1.familiarity with key ideas and important events
in ancient and colonial Latin America. You will also gain an
2.appreciation for the different kinds of sources and varied methods archaeologists, anthropologists, and historians use to study the early Americas.
In terms of academic skills History 339 will develop your
1.critical reading ability,
since you will be answering questions about assigned reading each week. Your
2.writing and analytic skills
will improve as you work on posts and responses, and you will also begin to appreciate the importance of
3.collaboration
in academic work.

BASIS FOR GRADE/ How will I be evaluated or graded in History 339?
Your grade in the course will be based upon the following work:
15% Weekly reading questions, based on the readings, are accessed through a link in the syllabus. They are due by 11:59 PM each Sunday evening. You may submit work after this date, but you will not receive full credit. For each day an assignment is late, 15% will be deducted from your grade. Thus, to receive any credit at all, you must submit late work within one week of the due date.
15% A one-paragraph reaction to the weekly problem, posted by 11:59 PM each Sunday evening.
15% Two responses to two different reactions, posted by the following Tuesday at 1:59 PM. Your responses should offer additional examples in5 support of the reaction, or challenge the reaction in some way. “Good work” or “Great idea” are not valid responses!
25% Midterm essay exam and
30% Final essay exam Exams are essay format, and require you to cite liberally from the material you have been reading and viewing.
Cite your sources; give credit to others for their ideas.
Plagiarism in this course will result in your failing the course as a whole, in addition to whatever penalties the University imposes. Please see the University catalog.

Students with Special Needs
If you are a student with special learning needs, and you think you may require accommodations, your first step is to register with the campus office of Disability Services for Students,  707-664-2677. DSS will provide you with written confirmation of your verified disability, and authorize recommended accommodations. You then present this recommendation to the instructor,  who will discuss the accommodations with you.

Unforeseen circumstances
While this course does not require you to attend class, it does require an internet connection. With PG&E outages and/or other unforeseen events it is possible that you may lose your internet connection. We can adapt the course to these, or other, changing conditions.

The Syllabus
History 339 should be a collaboration; students, as well as the instructor, can be involved in deciding what is important to study.  This syllabus is not set in stone! If you are interested in a particular topic and would like to learn more about it, please let me know. 

Schedule week by week

Jan 25 ANCIENT AMERICANS 
VIEW: Video lecture

Caral, Supe, Peru. Urban center active 2600 BC to 2100BC. UNESCO World Heritage Site.

A.REQUIRED READING
1. Grove, Discovering the Olmecs, (U Texas, 2014) pages 1-98
2. Mann. 1491 (New York: Knopf, 2005) 62-9

B.RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading, due Sunday Jan 31, by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais @sonoma.edu. (Questions will be emailed to your sonoma.edu address.)

SUGGESTED READING
Mann. 1491 (New York: Knopf, 2005) Chapter 1 and 2

HERE IS THIS WEEK’S THINKING QUESTION: THE OLMEC ARE A LOWLAND CULTURE, DOWN THE GULF COAST FROM VERACRUZ. A TROPICAL FOREST ENVIRONMENT MUST HAVE BEEN CHALLENGING TO LIVE IN. WHAT ADAPTATIONS DID THE OLMEC MAKE, OR WHAT ADVANTAGES DID THIS INHOSPITABLE ENVIRONMENT OFFER?

C. WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Post your response by Jan 31 at 11:59 p.m. Sign your response with your first and last initial.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please.

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on. Sign each of your comments with first and last initial.
Post in the space below the week’s video lecture, please.

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Feb 1 OLMECS
VIEW: Video lecture

CLICK ON THE VIDEO LECTURE TO GET TO THE POSTING SECTION!

Olmec Big Head – Museo de Antropología de Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.

A.REQUIRED VIEWING
Olmec Heads – BBC Worldwide 1999
and
A. REQUIRED READING
1. Grove, Discovering the Olmecs, (U Texas, 2014) pages 99-182.
2. Mann. 1491( New York: Knopf, 2005) 204

B .RESPONSE to questions on videos and required reading, due NOTE CHANGE: TUESDAY FEB 9 by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais @sonoma.edu.

SUGGESTED READING
Pool and Loughlin, “Creating Memory and Negotiating Power in the Olmec Heartland,Journal of Archeological Method and Theory, 24 (2017) 229-260
Prem and Kurbjuhn, Ancient Americas: A Brief History and Guide to Research (U Utah, 1997) 5-8

HERE IS THIS WEEK’S THINKING QUESTION: WE OFTEN THINK ABOUT ARCHAEOLOGICAL “FINDS” AS THE PURPOSE OF DIGS. THESE FINDS MAY INCREASE OUR KNOWLEDGE OF EARLIER CIVILIZATIONS. THIS BOOK, THOUGH, SHOWS YOU AT LEASST TWO OTHER USES FOR THESE ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS. WHAT ARE THOSE USES, AND WHO MAKES USE OF THEM? DOES KNOWING ABOUT THESE OTHER USES MATTER?

C. WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Post your response by NOTE CHANGE: FEB 9 at 11:59 p.m. No need to sign!

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on. No need to sign!

________________________________________
PLEASE EXPECT TO SEE THE THINKING QUESTION AND THE VIDEO LECTURE, AND TO RECEIVE THE READING QUESTIONS, ON MONDAY MORNING FOR THE REST OF THE SEMESTER!
Feb 8 – TEOTIHUACAN; MONTE ALBAN
VIEW: Video lecture

A. REQUIRED VIEWING
Linda Manzanilla. Teotihuacan: An Exceptional Multiethnic City in Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico
AND
REQUIRED READING
Adams, R., Ancient Civilizations of the New World, 37-53
Mann, 1491 (New York: Knopf, 2005) 213-224.
*Winter, M. “Social Memory and the Origins of Monte Alban,Ancient Mesoamerica, Vol. 22, n. 2 (Fall 2011) 393-409.

RECOMMENDED VIEWING
Deborah Nichols, Teotihuacan and the Making of a World City 1 hr
(Start this video at 4 minutes 45 seconds)
Michael Smith: Urbanization and Daily Life at Teotihuacan 1hr 22 minutes

RECOMMENDED READING
Storey, R. “”Teotihuacan and the Demography of Preindustrial Cities,Life and Death in the Ancient City of Teotihuacan (U Alabama Press, 1992), 27-44.
Murakami, T. “Social Identities, Power Relations and Urban Transformations ,” Mesoamerican Plazas (U Arizona, 2014) 34-49.
Blomster, J. After Monte Albán: Transformation and Negotiation in Oaxaca, Mexico (U Colorado, 2008) 2-11.
Prem and Kurbjuhn, Ancient Americas: A Brief History and Guide to Research (U Utah, 1997) 8-25.


B.RESPONSE to questions on video and assigned reading, due Sunday, Feb 14 by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais@sonoma.edu.

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. HERE IS THE QUESTION: Marcus Winter offers seven different “models” or ideas about the origins of Monte Alban. Which one do you find to be the most likely? Why? Post your response by Feb 14 at 11:59 p.m.

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.

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Feb 15 – MAYA
VIEW: Video lecture

Vessel with Pawahtun Instructing Scribes; Kimbell Museum, Fort Worth, TX

A.REQUIRED VIEWING
National Geographic, “The Lost World of the Maya” 45 minutes
Nova, “Latest Mystery of Maya Civilization” 26 minutes
and
A.REQUIRED READING
Clendinnen, I. “Indians,” Ambivalent Conquests (Cambridge, 2003), 129-139 and 140-190.
Adams, R., Ancient Civilizations of the New World., 53 – 77
Mann, 1491 (New York: Knopf, 2005) 267-279

B.RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading. Due Sunday, Feb 21 by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais @sonoma.edu.

RECOMMENDED READING
*Aimers and Iannone, “The Dynamics of Ancient Maya Developmental History,” The Great Maya Droughts in Cultural Context (U Colorado, 2014) 21-50.
*Dahlin and Chase, “A Tale of Three Cities,” The Great Maya Droughts in Cultural Context (U Colorado, 2014) 127-157..
*Davis-Salazar, Karla L. “Late Classic Maya Water Management and Community Organization at Copan, Honduras.Latin American Antiquity 14, no. 3 (2003): 275-99.
*Chase and Chase, “Caracol, Belize, and Changing Perceptions of Ancient Maya Society, J Archaeol Res 25 (2017) 185-249,
*Prem and Kurbjuhn, Ancient Americas: A Brief History and Guide to Research (U Utah, 1997) 26-33.

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. HERE IS THE QUESTION: Mayan scientific and technical knowledge was impressive. they were also able to shape their environment to feed a very large population successfully for a long time. Why do you suppose they did not anticipate their catastrophic decline ? Post your response by Feb 21 at 11:59 p.m.

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.

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Feb 22 – THE INCA EMPIRE
VIEW: Video lecture

Inca tunic – dunbarton Oaks, Washington, D,C.

A.REQUIRED VIEWING
Kings and Generals, “History of the Inca Empire.” 48 minutes
The rise and fall of the Inca, 5 minutes
A.REQUIRED READING
Murra, J et al., Anthropological History of Andean Polities (Cambridge U, 2009) Chapter 4, pages 49-58; chapter 5, 59-68.
MacCormack, S. “History, Historical Record, and Ceremonial Action: Incas and Spaniards in Cuzco,Comparative Studies in Society and History, vol. 43 n. 2 (April 2001) 329-363.

B.RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading. Due Sunday, Feb 28, by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais @sonoma.edu.

RECOMMENDED READING
Niles, S. The Shape of Inca History (U Iowa, 1999) Chapter 3 (45-84)

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Here is the question: what might be the advantages of incorporating the past – history – into an empire’s life and rituals? Is the way the Inka did this different from the way that we in the US do it, and if so, how does it differ?Post your response by Feb 28 at 11:59 p.m. Sabine MacDonald might be good to cite on this one!

D. COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.

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March 1 THE AZTEC (MEXICA) EMPIRE
VIEW: Video lecture

Tlatoani Ahuitzotl from Codex Mendoza

A.REQUIRED VIEWING
Invicta, “Rise of the Aztec Empire” 22 minutes
and
REQUIRED READING
A. Clendinnen, I., Aztecs: An Interpretation (Cambridge U, 1995) Part I: The City, 19-121.

B. RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading Due Sunday, Mar 7, by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais@sonoma.edu.

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Here is the question: How important was local identity in the Aztec empire? How did this affect Aztec history? Post your response by March 8 at 11:59 p.m.

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.

________________________________________
Mar 8 THE AZTEC (MEXICA) EMPIRE, 2
VIEW: Video lecture

A.REQUIRED READING
Clendinnen, I., Aztecs: An Interpretation (Cambridge U, 1995) Part II: Roles, 121-300.

Video: Introduction to the Aztecs

B.RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading. Due Sunday, Mar 14, by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais@sonoma.edu.

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Here is your question: What role would you prefer in the Mexica world? Why? Post your response by Mar at 11:59 p.m.

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.

_________________________________________
Mar 15 MIDTERM EXAM WEEK
Your midterm exam is an essay of 2100 words (6 pages). You will have at least two topics, emailed on Sunday March 14, to choose from. Your essay must use Chicago (Turabian) citation format, and you should include sources from the required and recommended reading. The essay is due to halavais@sonoma.edu by 11:59 pm, Friday, March 19.

History Summarized: The Maya, Aztec, and Inca

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Mar 22 SPRING BREAK
________________________________________

Mar 29. WEEK 10
SPANISH AND MAYA
VIEW: Video lecture

JUAN DE GRIJALVA

A.REQUIRED READING
Clendinnen, I. “Spaniards,” Ambivalent Conquests (Cambridge, 2003), 1-127.

B.RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading. Due Sunday, April 4 by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais@sonoma.edu.

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Here is your question: Spanish missionaries seem to think that Spanish customs are an integral part of Spanish Christianity. Are they correct? Please think carefully before you answer! Post your response by April 4 at 11:59 p.m.

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.

Apr 5. WEEK 11
PORTUGUESE IN BRAZIL
VIEW: Video lecture

Pedro de Reinal Map of the. North Atlantic 1535
Brazilian Captaincies, 1636

A.REQUIRED READING
Alida Metcalf, Go-Betweens and the Colonization of Brazil , Chapters 2 and 3, pages 17-89.

RECOMMENDED
“The Mission,” 1986, dir. Roland Joffre

B.RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading. Due Sunday, April 11 by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais@sonoma.edu.

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Here is your question: The Portuguese, from the early 1400s forward, were more interested in trade than in possession and conversion. The Spanish, on the other hand, expected the land, and the people, as a kind of reward for conquest. Would this explain the difference in initial approaches to New World natives by Portuguese and Spanish explorers? Post your response by April 11 at 11:59 p.m.

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.

Apr 12. WEEK 12
SPANISH AND AZTECS
VIEW: Video lecture

CORTES AND LA MALINCHE MEET MOCTEZUMA 8 NOV 1519
IMAGE FROM THE LIENZA DE TLAXCALA

A.REQUIRED READING
Bernal Diaz del Castillo. The Conquest of Mexico. Author’s Preface, Villa Rica de Vera Cruz, Chapters CLIV, CLV, CLVI

First letter of Cortes from Mexico


Video: Aztecs: Arrival of Cortes

RECOMMENDED
Video: Carlos Martinez Shaw, “The True Story of Hernan Cortes.” Fundiacion Juan March. (Use English subtitles!)

B.RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading. Due Sunday, April 18 by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais@sonoma.edu.

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Here is your question: Do you see Marina as a traitor to her people? Please think before you respond, and provide explanations and justifications for your response! Post your response by April 18 at 11:59 p.m.

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.

Apr 19. WEEK 13
SPANISH AND INCA
VIEW: Video lecture

ATAHUALPA AND PIZARRO MEET 1532
(Atahualpa arrives in the city of Cajamarca on his throne)

A.REQUIRED READING
Yupanqui, “Account of how the Spanish intruded into Peru and the things that Manco Inca did when he lived among them.” Pages 49-55.
Hanke, Louis, The Spanish Struggle for Justice in the Conquest of America, page 162-172.

RECOMMENDED
Garcilaso de la Vega, Royal Commentaries of Peru, Book II (Page 360)

B.RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading. Due Sunday, April 25 by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais@sonoma.edu.

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Here is your question: Why do you think that Yupanqui wrote his account? What was he trying to accomplish and why? Post your response by April 25 at 11:59 p.m.

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.

Apr 26 WEEK 14
COLONIAL GOVERNMENT
VIEW: Video lecture

A.REQUIRED READING
Cline, Chapter 4, “Town Government,” Colonial Culhuacan, 1580-1640 (Albuquerque: U of New Mexico Press, 1986) 35-58.

Ruiz Medrano, Reshaping New Spain: Government and Private Interests in the Colonial Bureaucracy, 1535-1550 (Boulder: U Colorado Press, 2012) 75-150.

Kennedy et al., “Introduction,” Inside the Reduccion: Crafting Colonial Foodways at Carrizales and Mocupe Viejo, Zana Valley, Peru.

RECOMMENDED
Dym, “Taking a Walk on the Wild Side: Experiencing the Spaces of Latin America,” CLAR, Vol. 21, Apr 2012, 3-16.

B.RESPONSE to questions on videos and assigned reading. Due Sunday, May 2 by 11:59 p.m. Email to halavais@sonoma.edu.

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Here is your question: How important was local government in the Viceroyalities of New Spain and Peru? Post your response by May 2 at 11:59 p.m.

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.

May 3. WEEK 15
MISSIONARIES AND RELIGION
VIEW: Video lecture

A.REQUIRED READING
Lavrin, “Indoctrination, Conversion and Belief in the Colonial Iberian World,” LARR, Vol. 46, no. 3, 2011

Schwartz, All Can Be Saved: Religious Toleration and Salvation in the Iberian Atlantic World (New Haven: Yale, 2008) Chapter 5, 121-150.

Ramos, Death and. Conversion in the Andes (Univ. Notre Dame, 2010), Chapter 4, 89-114.

RECOMMENDED
Hoberman and Socolow, The Countryside in colonial Latin America (Albuquerque: U of New Mexico Press, 1996).

B. NO response to reading questions this week.

C.WRITTEN WORK: Write a one paragraph response to the week’s question. Here is your question: What was the most difficult part of converting natives of the New World? Post your response by May 9 at 11:59 p.m.

D.COMMENTARY: Post a one-sentence comment to each of two of the posted responses. Once a post has 2 responses below it, you must choose another posted response to comment on.

May 10: WEEK 16
This week is your opportunity to reflect upon and react to this semester’s course. Final exam questions, and directions, will be emailed to you Sunday evening.

May 17 FINAL EXAM WEEK
Your final exam is due Wednesday, May 19, by 11:59 p.m., t0 halavais@sonoma.edu.

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